osteoporosis – PREVENTION

I. Prevention of Osteoporosis

The aim of preventive measures is to attain adequate bone mass and to maintain it. Preventive measures should be taken right from childhood.

  • Proper nutrition: Adequate intake of calcium, protein and vitamin D (such as milk, cheese, eggs, brocolli) till adult life is important to achieve ample bone mass. Low calcium intake throughout the life may cause decrease in peak bone mass, increasing the risk of fractures. However, excessive intake of protein and vitamin D should be avoided (causes negative calcium balance).

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  • Exercise and physical activity: Exercises especially weight bearing exercises (such as walking, dancing, jogging, climbing stairs) have been shown to be beneficial in maintaining the bone mass.
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): Hormone replacement therapy with estrogen may be considered in perimenopausal or postmenopausal females with reduced bone mass, who are likely to develop fractures.
  • Stop smoking: Smoking might reduce the levels of estrogen leading to reduced bone mass.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol intake: Excessive alcohol intake increases the risk of osteoporosis by decreasing bone formation and possibly due to poor nutrition too.