BONE & JOINT DISORDERS (ARTHRITIS)

 

INFECTIVE OR SEPTIC ARTHRITIS – TYPES  

II. Tubercular Arthritis

 

This is an inflammation of joints caused by tuberculous infection. It is usually secondary to an already existing tubercular focus in lungs or kidneys. Usually single joint is involved and it is cold to touch. It can be very destructive and lead to collapse of vertebra.

 

Symptoms

1% of people having tuberculosis will develop arthritis. Onset is gradual(slow) and it commonly affects the upper limbs in adults and lower limbs in children.

  • usually involves the spine, hips, knees, wrists and ankles
  • Low grade fever
  • Pain, swelling and stiffness in joints
  • Restriction of movement in joint
  • Loss of appetite, weight loss and night sweats
  • Tuberculous focus may be present in the body
  • Muscle wasting and muscle spasm may be present
  • Cold abscess may occur

 

Investigations

  • Tuberculin test : A positive tuberculin test confirms the diagnosis.
  • Synovial fluid culture shows tuberculosis bacterium.
  • Synovial membrane biopsy may be required in some cases.
  • X-Ray : It shows generalized decalcification, reduction of joint space with erosion of joint ends.