BONE & JOINT DISORDERS (ARTHRITIS)

 

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS – INVESTIGATIONS

 

I. Clinical examination

 

Detailed history and physical examination : Your doctor will begin with a detailed history and will also review factors that trigger your disease. Presence of a typical butterfly shaped rash across the face is a strong indicator of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).  

 

II. Laboratory examinations

  • Blood test
  • Serology test
  • Synovial fluid examination : It is done to rule out infection.
    • ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) is increased in SLE and it indicates the presence of inflammation in the body.
    • Blood cell count shows lowered hemoglobin (anemia), white blood cells (leucopoenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia).
    • ANA (Antinuclear antibody) test : Presence of this antibody is an indicator of SLE. ANA test can sometimes be positive in persons who do not have SLE, so a follow-up blood tests for other types of antibodies may be required.
    • Radioimmunoassay and ELISA test for determining anti DNA antibodies : This antibody is present in 50% of cases.
  • Skin or kidney biopsy  
  • ECG, Lung function test and Renal function test : To rule out any heart, lung or kidney problem respectively.