BONE & JOINT DISORDERS (ARTHRITIS)
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS – INVESTIGATIONS
I. Clinical examination
Detailed history and physical examination : Your doctor will begin with a detailed history and will also review factors that trigger your disease. Presence of a typical butterfly shaped rash across the face is a strong indicator of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).
II. Laboratory examinations
- Blood test
- Serology test
- Synovial fluid examination : It is done to rule out infection.
- ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) is increased in SLE and it indicates the presence of inflammation in the body.
- Blood cell count shows lowered hemoglobin (anemia), white blood cells (leucopoenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia).
- ANA (Antinuclear antibody) test : Presence of this antibody is an indicator of SLE. ANA test can sometimes be positive in persons who do not have SLE, so a follow-up blood tests for other types of antibodies may be required.
- Radioimmunoassay and ELISA test for determining anti DNA antibodies : This antibody is present in 50% of cases.
- Skin or kidney biopsy
- ECG, Lung function test and Renal function test : To rule out any heart, lung or kidney problem respectively.