CORRELATION WITH MODERN MEDICINE
As per classical Ayurveda, Madhumeha is considered to be a Prameha (Abnormality in urinary secretion), which was based on the obserVataion that the urine of Diabetes patients contained sugar and therefore ants got attracted towards it. On the contrary modern medical science consider diabetes to be an endocrine disease characterized by insufficient production of insulin (Type 1) or defect in insulin action known as insulin resistance (Type 2) leading to increase in blood glucose levels. However, the presence of glucose in urine holds true if blood glucose levels are high.
Prabhootavil mootrata (increased frequency of excess amount of dirty urine) was considered to be a major symptom of Madhumeha. By using the word ‘dirty’ perhaps they meant presence of sugar and / or turbidity. Correlated with modern medicine, the increased frequency of urination is a common symptom of diabetes. Diabetes patients are also at a higher risk of urinary tract infections which may make the urine appear turbid due to the presence of pus cells, justifying the description ‘dirty urine’ as per ayurveda.
Ayurveda states that Madhumeha is associated with dhatvansha (major constituents of tissues) flows out of the body through urine, leading to Dhatu kshaya (wasting of tissues). While correlating with modern medicine, tissue constituents does not flow out with urine and therefore dhatvansha in the practical sense is not lost through urine. However, glucose which is the major source of energy to the body is not properly utilized and therefore the body resorts to alternate sources of energy like proteins resulting in muscle wasting (applicable for Type 1 diabetes). This explains to some extent dhatukshaya as mentioned in Ayurveda.
Ayurveda considered genetic predisposition and improper life style as important causative factors for Madhumeha which is a well known fact today.
Madhumeha was considered to be a condition associated with the derangement of med (adipose tissue/fat), kled (body fluids) and maans (muscles). Diabetes is considered to be a disease in which fat metabolism is also disturbed which is in line with derangement of Med.
In diabetes patients, large amounts of water is lost from the body along with glucose through urine when blood glucose levels are high. Water can be correlated with Kled.
The muscle wasting mentioned above can explain the derangement of Maans.
Burning sensation in hands and feet signifies affection of nerves(Peripheral neuropathy).