Investigations are required to diagnose hypertension (especially secondary) and identify complications.

  • Measurement of blood pressure : Diagnosis of a person with high blood pressure is made on the basis of two or more readings, taken on several occasions. A consistent blood pressure reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher is considered high blood pressure.
  • Urine examination for blood, protein and glucose.
  • Blood examination for urea, cholesterol, creatinine and electrolyte levels.
  • Electrocardiography (ECG) to detect left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of heart) or coronary artery disease.
  • Chest X-ray to detect heart enlargement (cardiomegaly), coarctation (narrowing) of aorta.
  • Renal angiography to confirm presence of renal artery stenosis (narrowing).
  • Kidney function test to assess kidney function.
  • Echocardiogram to rule out heart disease.
  • Renal ultrasound to detect possible renal disease.