Investigations are required to diagnose hypertension (especially secondary) and identify complications.
- Measurement of blood pressure : Diagnosis of a person with high blood pressure is made on the basis of two or more readings, taken on several occasions. A consistent blood pressure reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher is considered high blood pressure.
- Urine examination for blood, protein and glucose.
- Blood examination for urea, cholesterol, creatinine and electrolyte levels.
- Electrocardiography (ECG) to detect left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of heart) or coronary artery disease.
- Chest X-ray to detect heart enlargement (cardiomegaly), coarctation (narrowing) of aorta.
- Renal angiography to confirm presence of renal artery stenosis (narrowing).
- Kidney function test to assess kidney function.
- Echocardiogram to rule out heart disease.
- Renal ultrasound to detect possible renal disease.