Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a healthy kidney is implanted in a patient with kidney failure. The non-functioning kidney of the patient is replaced by a new kidney obtained from a living or recently deceased (dead) donor. The transplanted kidney takes over the function of both the failed kidneys. The person who receives the kidney is called a ‘recipient’ and the person who donates the kidney is called a ‘donor’. Estimates show that in India, about 95,000 to 100,000 persons suffer from end stage renal disease and require some form of kidney replacement therapy (such as dialysis or kidney transplant). Around 3000 kidney transplants are carried out in India each year, most of these being from live donors. Success rate of kidney transplants in India is estimated to be around 90 per cent.