Who is suitable for donating kidney I. Living Donor A thorough assessment of the living donor is essential before taking the kidney. The living donor should have:
- Two kidneys with normal renal function
- No diseases related to blood vessels, cancer or infectious diseases including Hepatitis B and C and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) infection.
- Blood group and tissue type compatible (well-matched) with that that of the recipient.
- No problems related to blood supply and the urinary collecting system.
- No significant mental dysfunction
Following investigations are usually carried out in a living donor before taking the kidney: blood test to detect any infections, blood sugar test, kidney function test, liver function test, ECG, chest x-ray, ultrasound image of the donor’s kidneys, arteriogram to see the status of renal artery and vein before surgery, an intravenous pyelogram (IVP) to evaluate the donor’s kidneys and the rest of the urinary system, psychological assessment. II. Deceased (cadaver) Donor In such cases the kidney is usually obtained from a person who has been declared brain-dead. All age groups are suitable for organ donation but ideally the person should have been a previously healthy individual between 10-55 years of age. The kidney donation is contraindicated if the deceased donor had:
- serious infections (such as HIV, Hepatitis B & C, tuberculosis)
- a history of cancer (other than non-invasive tumors)
- been in a high risk group for HIV infections (such as intravenous drug user or engaged in unsafe sexual activities)
Relative contraindications for cadaver kidney donation include very elderly person (>70 years), severe vascular disease, long-term insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), hypertension or other conditions that may have impaired the kidney function.