Risk factors


  • Excessive straining at bowel movements.
  • Heavy weight lifting.
  • Diet high in processed food and low in fiber, which tends to cause constipation.
  • Sedentary lifestyle with no exercise.
  • Any condition which increases intra-abdominal (in the abdomen) pressure 
    • Childbirth
    • Chronic cough
    • Obesity
  • During pregnancy, there can be formation of piles (hemorrhoids)due to compression of the hemorrhoidal veins, which can be due to:
    • pressure as a result of enlarged uterus carrying the baby.
    • relaxing effect of progesterone on the smooth muscle of the vein, leading to dilatation.
    • increase blood flow of the pelvic region.
  • Straining at urination due to enlarged prostrate in males or urethral stricture (narrowing of the urinary opening).
  • Chronic constipation, prolonged sitting, anal infection.
  • Cancer of rectum, causes compression or thrombosis (blood clot) in the hemorrhoidal vein giving rise to piles (hemorrhoids).
  • Loss of muscle tone in the rectum due to old age and after rectal surgery.
  • Hereditary: The problem of piles (especially internal hemorrhoids) may run in the families.