Types of Simple Goiter

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I. Simple diffuse goiter

  • It is more common in the age group of 15-25 years.
  • Usually produces no symptoms other than enlargement of the gland.
  • There could be a feeling of tightness in neck especially while swallowing.
  • Thyroid function tests are usually normal.

II. Endemic and multinodular goiter

  • It is common after middle age
  • Common in regions (Sub Himalayan region) where people take iodine deficient diet. Certain foods like sorghum, millet, maize, cassava may also cause goiter (goitrogens).
  • The goiter is nodular or lobulated and very large goiter can cause pressure symptoms like
    • tracheal (windpipe) compression, difficulty in breathing  difficulty in swallowing
    • hoarseness of voice due to compression of the nerve supplying the voice-box or larynx (recurrent laryngeal nerve).
    • obstruction of superior vena cava (superior vena cava syndrome)
  • It is usually a benign (harmless) condition.
  • Thyroid function tests are usually normal. However, in some cases it may be abnormal (hypo or hyperthyroidism).